Purpose built to; support the head and trunk, protect the spinal cord, allow spinal nerves to exit the spinal cord, provide muscle attachment, and allow movement to occur at the head and trunk.
The spine is divided into five regions: the cervical spine (neck region), the thoracic spine (attachment point for ribs forming the ribcage), lumbar spine (lower back), sacrum (platform of the spine), and coccyx (tail bone).
The spine consists of blocks of bone called vertebrae, intervertebral discs, ligaments, muscles and tendons, as well as the spinal cord and spinal nerves with surrounding neural tissue.
Common conditions include:
- Intervertebral disc bulge and herniation (ruptured disc)
- Muscular dysfunctions such as strains
- Facet joint pathology
- Neural system dysfunction such as spinal nerve (nerve root) impingement
- Spondylolisthesis and pars defects