Also known as the glenohumeral joint, is a multiaxial ball and socket joint.
With its large hemisphere “ball” and shallow socket, it permits a significant range of motion. It is however inherently unstable, placing heavy reliance on the soft tissues for stability.
The ligaments and capsule provide passive (static) stability, whereas the rotator cuff and scapular stabilisers provide active (dynamic) stability.
Common shoulder conditions include:
- Rotator cuff tendinopathy and tears
- Dislocations and subluxations
- Labral tears
- Adhesive capsulitis (Frozen shoulder)
- Biceps tendon injuries
- Fractures of the scapula, humerus, and clavicle
- Bursitis and impingement syndromes
- AC and SC joint sprains
- Muscular dysfunctions such as tears of the pectorals
- Referred pain from the neck and middle back
- Nerve entrapment