The Ankle and Foot

The ankle is predominantly a hinge joint between the shank and foot allowing for an “up and down” movement. The heel in combination with the smaller bones in the midfoot aid in the flattening and lifting of the arches to help with shock absorption and propulsion.

Stability of the joint is dependent on the joint surfaces, muscles and ligaments.

Common injuries include:

  • Ligament sprains such as lateral ligament sprains and syndesmosis injuries
  • Heel fat pad syndrome
  • Tendinopathies (Achilles, tibialis posterior, peroneals)
  • Joint pathology such as Talar dome injuries
  • Fractures and dislocations such as cuboid subluxation
  • Anterior and posterior ankle impingement pain
  • Neural dysfunctions such as sinus tarsi syndrome
  • Referred pain such as from the lower back

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